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Date a native Kentucky man

Long before the arrival of Europeans, the Kentucky region was inhabited by indigenous agricultural and hunting peoples who left behind burial and ceremonial mounds that remain prominent features of the landscape today.


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The Latest on reaction from a recent encounter between white teenagers, Native American marchers and a black religious sect outside the Lincoln Memorial. A Catholic high school student whose close encounter with a Native American activist and a black religious sect was captured on video in Washington, D. Nick Sandmann told NBC's "Today" show on Wednesday that he had every right to be there, as did the others who gathered in front of the Lincoln Memorial. He said he wasn't disrespectful and was trying to stay calm under the circumstances. Videos posted of Sandmann and his classmates wearing "Make America Great Again" hats as they faced off against Omaha Nation elder Nathan Phillips have sparked widespread criticism. But the various sides say they've been misunderstood and that snippets of video were taken out of context.

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At that time, Kentucky was also considered home to the Mingo and Yamacraw, and Yuchi. For more than years following statehood, American Indians in Kentucky refusing to acknowledge land cession and forced removal were subjected to ecocide, genocide, ethnocide, assimilation, and deprivation.

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However, they had the will to survive, and survive they did. American Indians preserved their languages, arts, crafts, religions, and representative governments, generation after generation, in locations that have been closely guarded secrets, from mountain cabins and farms, to deep grottos inside caves, remote rock-shelters, and beyond. American Indians in Kentucky concealed their identity in order to survive. It did not stop them, however, from representing their home state in every American war, even when they lacked citizenship and human recognition.

American Indians domesticated a plethora of plants including the bottle gourd Lagenaria sicerariathe gourd-like squash Cucurbita pepothe sunflower Helianthus annuusmaize Zea maysbeans Phaseolus vulgarisamaranth Amaranthus hypochondriacuscushaw squash Cucurbita argyrospermaand tobacco Nicotiana species. In addition to cultigens, American Indians practiced silvaculture of nut-bearing trees such as black walnut, pecan, and the chestnut.

Aside from the economic ificance of these cultigens and masts, they are literally helping to feed people around the world today.

Cultural contributions

American Indians recycled of all of their natural resources including those obtained from plants, animals, and the earth. Most important of these, they managed their water resources by creating and maintaining sustainable landscapes that provided irrigation to their crops and villages. American Indians were the original environmental stewards.

The political system of the United States was modeled after the confederacies and leadership formed among and between American Indian tribes during the eighteenth century. Decisions were made of the people, by the people, and for the people through consensus.

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Power and prestige among American Indians came not from the accumulation of personal material wealth, but from how much was given away. In this vein, everyone was. No one went hungry, unsheltered, or unclothed. Each person had a purpose and role in society. Most of the major ro in Kentucky were built on American Indian trails. American Indians used a wide variety of therapeutic plants, many of which have been synthesized and are key ingredients in modern western medicine. American Indians have served in the armed forces of the United States in every war including the American Revolution.

They have fought and died for their country even when they were not considered human beings or citizens. American Indians living in Kentucky have intermarried outside their tribe since time immemorial. Unfortunately, many people today still hold antiquated stereotypes about American Indian identity and use mixed-blood terms such as full-bloods, half-bloods, and quarter-bloods.

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These modern misconceptions of biology and culture can be traced to the very beginning of the state. The treaty gave Joseph Parks, a reported quarter-blooded Piqua Shawnee, entitlements including six hundred and forty acres of land.

Unfortunately, the Shawnee Treaty of became the standard for identifying American Indians in Kentucky. Today, rather than an understanding of American Indian people or their culture, most people have a stereotype about them.

Man of the wilderness

For example, many people still believe that American Indians in Kentucky lived in cave or tipis. At the time Kentucky was declared a state, American Indians were actually living in log cabins, multi-story wooden homes, and brick houses.

For more than years, American historians have argued that the American Indians never lived in Kentucky. Instead, they portrayed Kentucky as either a middle ground used by all tribes for hunting or the center of many dark and bloody disputes.

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John Filson, an opportunistic investor, land speculator, and entrepreneur, created this myth and many others in a book, The Discovery, Settlement, and Present State of Kentucke, published five years after his death in The book included an of American Indians inhabiting within the limits of the thirteen United States including their manners and customs, and reflections of their origin. Filson further emphasized that American Indians had no valid claim to Kentucky because it was originally settled by an ancient white race that greatly predated the Indians.

Ironically, the very people Filson claimed did not live in Kentucky killed him. To further allure them to this new land of opportunity, Filson created a story about an American Indian silver mine. His fictitious story emphasized that Kentucky was a land filled with riches just waiting to be taken. Prior to European contact, Kentucky was inhabited by Algonquian e. The Cherokee were the first people to come in contact with Europeans.

The earliest known contact with Europeans occurred inwhen a party of Cherokee warriors successfully defended their northwestern border against the advances of Hernando DeSoto and his Spanish soldiers. It is derived from the Choctaw word, choluk, which means cave. Kentucky is a land of caves and home to the longest cave in the world.

Kentucky caves are full of evidence of Cherokee people, from salt and crystal mines to exploration and habitation. As the Cherokee explored and settled in Kentucky, they came across the entrances of great caves, some of which were filled with mineral resources that extended many miles underground. They ventured into caves in search of protection from the elements, to mine minerals, to dispose of their dead, to conduct ceremonies, and to explore the unknown, as indicated by the footprints, pictographs, petroglyphs, mud glyphs, stone tools, and sculptures they left behind.

Wherever the Cherokee found a dry cave in Kentucky with a reasonably accessible opening, they entered and explored it systematically. Before European colonization, Kentucky was a ificant part of the Cherokee country, representing the northern quarter of the Cherokee Nation since time immemorial. By the end of the American Revolution, the northern boundary of the Cherokee country was moved southward to encompass the land below the Cumberland River. After the British arrived on the present site of Jamestown, Virginia inthere was continuous date a native Kentucky man with Cherokee in Kentucky as traders strengthened their alliances and worked their way into the Appalachian Mountains.

Perhaps the earliest evidence of an English trader with Cherokee in Kentucky is in Wolfe County, where a date of occurs with traditional symbols of Anitsisqua, the Cherokee Bird Clan, incised on a sandstone outcrop overlooking Panther Branch.

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Cherokee claims to Kentucky were seriously challenged when the Tuscarawas ed the Haudenosaunee, a confederacy of Iroquoian speaking peoples that included the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas in Expanding by alliance and conquest, they penetrated deeply into the state. The newly formed Six Nations took over control of all of the land north of the Cumberland River. Bythe Shawnee were serving as guides into northern Kentucky for the French military who considered Kentucky part of New France. At this time, the Cherokee were busy fighting the Choctaw, Creek, and Yamasee to the south for their British allies.

Although this visit strengthened allegiance with the British, the Cherokee population in Kentucky and elsewhere was cut in half by smallpox just eight years later making it difficult to defend their northern borders. To make matters worse, the Creek and Choctaw had allied themselves with the French. At the onset of the French and Indian War inCherokee, Delaware, Shawnee, and Wyandot leaders seeking inter-tribal peace traveled back and forth through Kentucky on the Great Warrior Road in route to council meetings with representatives of the Six Nations.

While the Cherokee were granted permission from the Six Nations to return to their land north of the Cumberland River, it was a political exchange for their partisan position against the French and all villages sympathetic to French traders.

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As part of the peace agreement, Shawnee families began to spend winters with the Cherokee, and warriors began to spend time with the Shawnee. During the French and Indian War, between andblockades cut off salt shipments from the West Indies.

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Salt springs and licks in Kentucky became an important resource to the colonists. The abundance of salt in Kentucky, north and south, did not escape the eyes of date a native Kentucky man Europeans and later became an issue of national security. With the ing of the Treaty of Paris inFrance gave up all mineral resource and land claims to Kentucky.

In exchange for their help during the war, the British victors proclaimed that Kentucky was to be recognized as Indian Territory and no person could make a treaty with the Cherokee or buy land from them without their permission. While the treaty of allowed the Cherokee to retain all of their land in Kentucky, their possession was short-lived. Inthe British superintendent of Indian Affairs convinced the Cherokee to cede their holdings in what is today the state of Virginia to prevent conflicts with encroaching colonists.

British representatives insisted on the negotiation of a new treaty on October 18,which moved the northeastern boundary of Cherokee country from the New River of West Virginia to the land within the extreme western corner of Kentucky, today known as Pike County. Two years later, Great Britain requested yet another treaty to purchase all of the land between the Ohio and Kentucky rivers. Entrepreneur and colonial judge Richard Henderson, his agent Daniel Boone, and other private citizens met with Cherokee Chiefs along the Watauga River on March 17, Henderson and Boone illegally negotiated the cession of all of the land in between the Kentucky, Ohio, and Cumberland rivers to the privately owned Transylvania Company.

Although it has become known as the Treaty of Sycamore Shoals, the entire event was in direct violation of the Royal Proclamation of On behalf of England, the colony of Virginia, which then included Kentucky, revoked the treaty. However, it did not stop Boone and the Transylvania Company from creating the Wilderness Road, which opened the way for an unstoppable and unlimited flow of European immigrants into Kentucky and in direct conflict with the Cherokee. The Treaty of Sycamore Shoals was negotiated just one month before the beginning of the American Revolution.

Many American Indians living in Kentucky supported the British through the war and beyond to Following the example of the Delaware Chief, Coquetakeghton White Eyes, who served as a guide and lieutenant colonel in the American army, a of mixed-blood Cherokee living in Kentucky, such as King David Benge and Jesse Brock, agreed to serve as scouts.

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At the decisive Battle of Kings Mountain, October 7,there were Cherokee warriors from Kentucky fighting on both sides. Byindividual Cherokee political alliances had become extremely complex. Some traveled to St. Louis, Missouri to seek protection from the Spanish government, while others moved north and ed the Shawnee on the Scioto River getting supplies and council from the British military.

At the same time, representatives of the Chippewa, Ottawa, Potawatomi, and Wyandot traveled to the Cumberland River valley to council with the Cherokee about ing them in an all out war against the United States. To make matters worse, a group of Tennessee colonists illegally created the State of Franklin with John Sevier as their Governor. On May 31,Major Hugh Henry, Sevier, and other representatives of the self-declared state met with Cherokee Chiefs to negotiate the "Treaty of Dumplin Creek," which promised to redefine and extend the Cherokee boundary line.

Seiver and his Franklinites engendered a spirit of distrust between all subsequent treaty-makers and the Cherokee, which led to many bloody conflicts and, ultimately, genocide in Kentucky.