Used as a hunting ground by the Osage and later inhabited by the Cherokee, the first permanent settlers came into the area in the mids when Arkansas was still a territory.
Fayetteville was established as the county seat on October 17, Fayetteville has long been known for its innovative spirit, as an academic center, as the "Athens of the Ozarks", and as a "hilly area" known for the 7 hills around and within it. Notable People Over the years, Fayetteville has been home to many notable people, including Senator J. It is also home to dozens of properties on the National Register of Historic Places, many dating to before the Civil War.
The area that would become the City of Fayetteville was founded inwhen pioneers settled near a spring at the base of Mount Sequoyah.
Washington County On October 17,Washington County was established out of Lovely County, which had been established the year. Barry ordered the name changed to avoid confusion arising from another town in Hempstead County already named Washington. County commissioners chose the name Fayetteville because 2 of the commissioners, James Buchanan and John Wooddy, hailed from Fayetteville, Tennessee.
First Permanent Courthouse Ina crude foot-byfoot-long building with puncheon floors made from logs that are finished flat on just one side and are very thick and strong was erected as the first permanent courthouse. AboutJohn Nye opened a store on the west side of the Square and the next day another store, run by the Sevier Brothers, sprang up nearby. InAlfred Wallace opened a general store on the west side and shortly thereafter William McGarrah opened a grocery at the corner of East and Center streets where the University of Arkansas Continuing Education building now stands.
Fayetteville Original Settlement On February 27,President Andrew Jackson issued a patent for acres forming the original settlement of Fayetteville.
The money was used to erect a courthouse and Clerk's Office. InFayetteville's first brick house, a school house, was built on what is now called School Avenue, between Meadow and Center Streets, and a military road was cut through Fayetteville en route from St. Louis, Missouri, to Fort Smith, Arkansas.
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Yell also served as the State's second Governor, serving as Governor from to He built a home, law office, and a guest house in Fayetteville on an estate he named Waxhaws in honor of President Jackson's South Carolina birthplace. Only Yell's law office remains, which was moved in to the Washington County Historical Society grounds.
This law office is one of the oldest structures in the State of Arkansas. Ina new brick county courthouse was built in the center of the Fayetteville Square, and in Archibald Yell contracted for the construction of a 2-story jail, with a dungeon and debtors cell in the lower story.
Fayetteville was officially incorporated in The college operated until the outbreak of the Civil War. In Junea contract was awarded to build yet another new county courthouse in the center of the Fayetteville Square. This third courthouse was burned during the Civil War. Civil War and Military Activity There was little military activity in Fayetteville until February 25,when Confederate troops moving south were ordered to destroy an arsenal in the Van Horne school building located at the northwest corner of College and Dickson where the First Baptist Church now stands. Soldiers were ordered to burn and loot all commercial buildings, military stores, and vacant houses in Fayetteville rather than let any material fall into the hands of Union forces.
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After setting torch to the city, the Confederates retreated beyond the Boston Mountains, only to pass through a week later on their march north to the battle at Pea Ridge. During the Civil War, the town was alternately possessed by both sides. Although there were skirmishes, the "Action at Fayetteville" or "Battle of Fayetteville" was the only major conflict.
On the morning of April 18,the city awoke to Southern forces attacking Union troops headquartered within the city limits. Backed with cannon fire from the lower side of East Mountain near Olive Avenue and East Dickson Street todayConfederate cavalry charged up from Big Spring but were repulsed by Union infantry and cavalry.
Most of the battle raged near the intersection of Dickson Street and College Avenue, giving rise to its name as "Bloody Corner. Larue Harrison.
The battle centered on Tebbetts' home while Confederates attempted to take back the town. The battle-scarred house, known today as Headquarters House, still stands as a museum and the headquarters of the Washington County Historical Society. In the end, Confederate troops were unsuccessful and withdrew into the sheltering mountains.
It was one of the original 14 federal cemeteries authorized by President Abraham Lincoln. On June 10,a group of Fayetteville women organized the Southern Memorial Association to secure a site for proper burial of Confederate soldiers who perished at the battles of Fayetteville, Prairie Grove, and Pea Ridge. The Confederate Cemetery was eventually established on 3 acres of land on the southern edge of Mount Sequoyah East Mountain near the eastern end of Rock Street. The American Missionary Society built a brick building to school the city's African American students.
Later named Henderson School after its first superintendent, it was the first public school in Fayetteville and perhaps the State. It still exists today as part of a private home. On March 20,an independent school district was organized, and the first meeting of a Fayetteville school board was held.
Upon re-entering the Union, Arkansas became eligible for such a grant.
Fayetteville's proposal was selected and the Arkansas Industrial University opened on January 22, In the early twentieth century, attempts were made to move the University of Arkansas to a more central location in the State. Arrow Left Arrow Right.